- SANADAHIMO–Each strand of SANADAHIMO(sah-nah-dah-hee-moe) is more than decoration. For the warrior classes in Japan, it signified loyalty and allegiance much as tartans and kilts do in Scotland. HIMO(hee-moe) means ribbon, and the rest of SANADAHIMO’s amazing history is rooted in the 16th century SENGOKU(sen-go-koo) period of Japan. The SAMURAI warrior family SANADA(sah-nah-dah) started weaving a unique design of cloth ribbon, which they wrapped around their swords’ hilt to provide a secure grip in the sweaty heat of battle. Since the unique design did not stretch easily and was very durable, many other SAMURAI sought to use it, and it became an important material. Towards the end of the SENGOKU period, the man who established the Japanese tea ceremony and culture, SEN NO RIKYU(sen no ree-key/you), suggested that tea ceremony utensil boxes should be tied using SANADAHIMO instead of the deer skin strings used at the time. These days, tea ceremony schools have adopted their own distinct patterns to signify their uniqueness and identity in the green tea world. In other ways, SANADAHIMO authenticates artisan craftsmanship in antique pottery as well as KIMONO garb.
- Sengoku period-(戦国時代 Sengoku jidai ) or the Warring States Period in Japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. Its name is a reference to the Warring States period in ancient China, and it is sometimes called by that name in English. The Sengoku period in Japan would eventually lead to the unification of political power under the Tokugawa shogunate.Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura bakufu and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyo, especially those whose domains were far from Kyoto. As trade with China grew, the economy developed, and the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy. As early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines often served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes.The Ōnin War (1467–1477), a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is generally regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period. The “eastern” army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the “western” army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city almost completely destroyed. The conflict in Kyoto then spread to outlying provinces.The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who gradually unified Japan. After Tokugawa Ieyasu’s final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa Shogunate.
- sado–The Japanese tea ceremony is called Chanoyu, Sado or simply Ocha in Japanese. It is a choreographic ritual of preparing and serving Japanese green tea, called Matcha, together with traditional Japanese sweets to balance with the bitter taste of the tea. Preparing tea in this ceremony means pouring all one’s attention into the predefined movements. The whole process is not about drinking tea, but is about aesthetics, preparing a bowl of tea from one’s heart. The host of the ceremony always considers the guests with every movement and gesture. Even the placement of the tea utensils is considered from the guests view point (angle), especially the main guests called the Shokyaku.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_tea_ceremony
- Yakusokuhimo– 茶道具の箱に掛ける真田紐は、作品（道具）の製作者・その所有者によって異なる色や柄の固有のものがあります。（約束紐）
known as a “Promise Bond”. Each author/artisian, crafts the woven handle which can only be used exclusively by the organization representing their SANADAHIMO.
- Obijime–An obijime is a decorated sash in order to tie an obi firmly. It is very important, when you tie an obi by Taiko Musubi, because Taiko Musubi has no obi knot, and tied with only an obijime, an obimakura’s sash, and an obiage.
- Kimono–(着物) is a Japanese traditional garment. The word “kimono”, which literally means a “thing to wear” (ki “wear” and mono “thing”), has come to denote these full-length robes. The standard plural of the word kimono in English is kimonos, but the unmarked Japanese plural kimono is also sometimes used. Kimono are T-shaped, straight-lined robes worn so that the hem falls to the ankle, with attached collars and long, wide sleeves. Kimono are wrapped around the body, always with the left side over the right (except when dressing the dead for burial.), and secured by a sash called an obi, which is tied at the back. Kimono are generally worn with traditional footwear (especially zōri or geta) and split-toe socks (tabi).Today, kimono are most often worn by women, and on special occasions. Traditionally, unmarried women wore a style of kimono called furisode, with almost floor-length sleeves, on special occasions. A few older women and even fewer men still wear the kimono on a daily basis. Men wear the kimono most often at weddings, tea ceremonies, and other very special or very formal occasions. Professional sumo wrestlers are often seen in the kimono because they are required to wear traditional Japanese dress whenever appearing in public.
- Rokumonsen–The design of the Sanada family crest is called “Rokumonsen” (6 coins). This name was derived from teachings of Buddhism, “Rikudo.” “Rikudo” means six underworlds, which people would go down to after death. When one died, the bereaved gave “Rokumonsen” into the casket, which was believed to be needed to cross Death’s river.
Sanada took this concept into the family crest, and this was a message that they were not afraid of death and ready to die anytime in the battle. The banner and crest with Rokumonsen and Sanada’s signature color, blazing scarlet must have terrified their enemies.
Sanada Clan – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanada_clan
- Sanada Family Clan–claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji. Sanada Yukitaka established the clan and it name at the beginning of the 16th century.
- CYCLE OF SAMSARA
Six Paths (Jp. = Rokudō 六道 or Rokudō-rinne 六道輪廻 or Mutsu no Sekai 六つの世界). Buddhist concept stemming from Hindu philosophies. Commonly translated in English as the “Six Realms of Karmic Rebirth.”
- Long before Buddhism’s introduction to India, Hindu (Brahman) beliefs and traditions held sway. One important concept was “transmigration,” more commonly known in the West as “reincarnation.” It holds that all living things die and are reborn again. Your rebirth into the next life will be based on your behavior in your past life. This rebirth occurs again and again. When Buddhism emerged in India around 500 BC, it too stressed this Hindu belief in transmigration, one that still plays a major role in modern Buddhist philosophy. The modern Buddhist concept of Karma is also a byproduct of ancient Hindu beliefs in transmigration and reincarnation.
- Among Buddhists, all living beings are born into one of the six states of existence (Samsara in Sanskrit, the cycle of life and death). All are trapped in this wheel of life, as the Tibetans call it. All beings within the six realms are doomed to death and rebirth in a recurring cycle over countless ages — unless they can break free from desire and attain enlightenment. Further, upon death, all beings are reborn into a lower or a higher realm depending on their actions while still alive. This involves the concept of Karma and Karmic Retribution. The lowest three states are called the three evil paths, or three bad states. The Japanese spellings of all six, plus brief descriptions, are shown below:
- Beings in Hell. Naraka-gati in Sanskrit. Jigokudō 地獄道 in Japanese. The lowest and worst realm, wracked by torture and characterized by aggression.
- Hungry Ghosts. Preta-gati in Sanskrit. Gakidō 餓鬼道 in Japanese. The realm of hungry spirits; characterized by great craving and eternal starvation; see below photo/link for “Scroll of the Hungry Ghosts” (Gaki Zōshi 餓鬼草紙)
- Animals. Tiryagyoni-gati in Sanskrit. Chikushōdō 畜生道 in Japanese. The realm of animals and livestock, characterized by stupidity and servitude.
- Asura. Asura-gati in Sanskrit. Ashuradō 阿修羅道 in Japanese. The realm of anger, jealousy, and constant war; the Asura (Ashura) are demigods, semi-blessed beings; they are powerful, fierce and quarrelsome; like humans, they are partly good and partly evil. See Hachi Bushu (8 Legions) for details.
- Humans. Manusya-gati in Sanskrit. Nindō 人道 in Japanese. The human realm; beings who are both good and evil; enlightenment is within their grasp, yet most are blinded and consumed by their desires.
- Deva. Deva-gati in Sanskrit. Tendō 天道 in Japanese. The realm of heavenly beings filled with pleasure; the deva hold godlike powers; some reign over celestial kingdoms; most live in delightful happiness and splendor; they live for countless ages, but even the Deva belong to the world of suffering (samsara) — for their powers blind them to the world of suffering and fill them with pride — and thus even the Deva grow old and die; some say that because their pleasure is greatest, so too is their misery. See also the Tenbu page and Hachi Bushu (8 Legions) page.